This website uses cookies to give you the best experience. By continuing to use this website you are consenting to cookies being used. You can delete and block cookies from within your browsers settings. For more information please refer to our privacy and cookie policy page.



This module covers the approach to examination, starting with when the child is observed playing or walking into the room. 

The pGALS (paediatric Gait, Arms, Legs and Spine) basic examination is demonstrated.

A pdf proforma of pGALS 'Record your Findings' is available.

Links to the pGALS App (with language translations) Google Play or Apple Store are provided. 

Take a look at the pGALS e-module - a case based introduction to the use and interpretation of pGALS in clinical practice. E-modules are available Newcastle University Short Online Courses⇒

pREMS (paediatric Regional Examination of the Musculoskeletal System) is a systematic detailed examination of a particular joint, based on the ‘look, feel, move’ principle. Video demonstrations of each component of pREMS are available. 

A pdf proforma - pREMS - 'Record your Findings' is available.

pGALS helps to identify abnormal joints or regions and pREMS enables a more detailed assessment.  Both are important and we would recommend at least pGALS as part of a general assessment. 

A further demonstration of pGALS and pREMS being used together in a child with joint contractures is also available. 

 A revision guide for musculoskeletal examination is available from GeekyMedics


Site Statistics

To date (end of March 2020) PMM has >587,000 hits and >229,000 users from 214 countries!

Why register?

Some parts of PMM which involve pictures or videos of children, can only be viewed by registered users. Registering also allows you to bookmark favourite pages and track your viewing.

find out more

Short online courses

from Newcastle University, UK

e-resources from PMM

pmm for you

Please help us ensure pmm is as useful to you as possible by completing this short survey

complete survey