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  • Musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) is sensitive to early changes in JIA and helps to identify which structures are involved in a clinically swollen joint.
  • Ultrasound can differentiate between joint effusions, synovial hypertrophy, synovitis, enthesitis, tendonitis and tenosynovitis.
  • Ultrasound is inexpensive, easy to perform and is well tolerated by most children, without the need for general anaesthesia. 
  • MSUS findings are operator-dependent. Standardising procedures and comparing findings between observers is important. 
  • A review of the use of MSUS in JIA is suggested.


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