Genu Valgum (Knock-Knees)
Knock-knees are normal in young children and most resolve by 6 years of age.
Between the ages of 2 and 4 years, a gap of 6 to 7 cm between the medial malleoli (the bone prominences at the ankles) is regarded as normal.
Referral is necessary if:
- There is asymmetry.
- There is an ankle gap larger than 6-7 cm.
- Changes are associated with pain or functional impairment.
- Changes persist beyond 5 years of age.
Conditions to consider include Rickets, Skeletal Dysplasias or Chronic (untreated) Inflammatory Arthritis (picture below).