This website uses cookies to give you the best experience. By continuing to use this website you are consenting to cookies being used. You can delete and block cookies from within your browsers settings. For more information please refer to our privacy and cookie policy page.



Vasculitis is a term to describe multisystem diseases, broadly classified by the size of involved blood vessels.  Vasculitis is suggested by a spectrum of clinical and laboratory features.


  • Fever, weight loss, persistent fatigue.
  • Skin rash: e.g., palpable purpura, vasculitic urticaria, nodules, ulcers, mouth ulcers.
  • Neurologic signs: e.g., headache, mononeuritis multiplex, focal neurological lesions (stroke).
  • Arthritis or arthralgia, myalgia or myositis.
  • Hypertension, cardiac failure, unequal pulses.
  • Testicular pain.
  • Oliguria, oedema.
  • Pulmonary infiltrates or haemorrhage.


  • Increased acute-phase reactants (ESR, CRP).
  • Anaemia, Leukocytosis, Eosinophilia.
  • Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA).
  • Elevated factor VIII - related antigen (von Willebrand factor).
  • Haematuria and active urine sediment.

The most common childhood vasculitides are Henoch – Schönlein purpura (HSP) / IgA vasculitis and Kawasaki Disease (KD). In Southern Africa Takayasu’s Arteritis is not uncommon.

The photograph below shows a 'target lesion' of skin vasculitis 

The photograph below shows vasculitic ulcers due to polyarteritis nodosa 

The photograph below shows livedo reticularis over the knee - a mottled skin appearance that associates with vasculitis and antiphospholipid syndromes

The photograph below shows ischaemic fingers in vasculitis with antiphospholipid syndrome

The photograph below shows an aphthous ulcer as a feature of small vessel vasculitis


Site Statistics

To date (end of November 2021) PMM has >968,551 hits and >402,983 users from 221 countries!

Why register?

Some parts of PMM which involve pictures or videos of children, can only be viewed by registered users. Registering also allows you to bookmark favourite pages and track your viewing.

find out more

Short online courses

from Newcastle University, UK

e-resources from PMM

pmm for you

Please help us ensure pmm is as useful to you as possible by completing this short survey

complete survey