This website uses cookies to give you the best experience. By continuing to use this website you are consenting to cookies being used. You can delete and block cookies from within your browsers settings. For more information please refer to our privacy and cookie policy page.

Continue

Normal Variants

Normal variants refer to the range of changes that can occur as part of normal development of the musculoskeletal system, usually the lower limbs. Such changes are often a cause for concern in parents or carers.  

Normal variants include leg alignment issues, flat feet, knock knees, bow legs, out-toeing, in-toeing or tip-toe walking. 

It is important to understand normal gait and motor milestones and normal lower limb development to appreciate normal variants and when observations may be considered abnormal, what conditions to consider and when referral for further assessment is needed.

There is a wide variation in lower limb development and minor [normal] variants, such as flat feet or knock-knees, are a common cause of parental concern. Sometimes they can be confused with indicators of underlying pathology.

Site Statistics

To date (end of April 2022) PMM has >1,063,574 hits and >444,543 users from 223 countries!

 

 

Short online courses

from Newcastle University, UK

e-resources from PMM

pmm for you

Please help us ensure pmm is as useful to you as possible by completing this short survey

complete survey