This website uses cookies to give you the best experience. By continuing to use this website you are consenting to cookies being used. You can delete and block cookies from within your browsers settings. For more information please refer to our privacy and cookie policy page.


Adolescent & Young Adult

  • Adolescence is defined broadly by the changes that occur (physical, psychosocial and developmental) from the age of 11 years into young adult years (25 years).
    • Adolescence is a challenging time of physical, psychological and emotional changes.
    • Young people, irrespective of whether they have chronic illness or not, need support at a time when they are planning their future, developing relationships and taking on responsibility to achieve independence away from the family home. 
    • Many young people with chronic rheumatic disease, such as Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) or Juvenile Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (JSLE), will need ongoing care into adult years. Improved management has resulted in many patients being well with good disease control and transferring to adult care often on complex immunosuppressive regimens.
    • Chronic illness can have an adverse impact on the physical changes of adolescence (e.g., delayed puberty and growth spurt) and can be isolating with anxiety, despondency, and poor adherence with medication and physical therapy. 
    • Medications can cause side effects, which may affect self-esteem and body image; for example, corticosteroids can exacerbate acne and growth retardation. Methotrexate poses lifestyle restrictions, such as alcohol intake. 
    • There are often worse clinical outcomes for young people with chronic illness; in particular for those who do not have access to, or do not engage in, transitional care programmes. The reasons for worse outcomes are multiple but include lack of appropriate services with trained health care professionals and being lost to follow up.
  • Transitional care attends to medical, psychosocial and educational / vocational needs of adolescents as they move to adult centred care. Transfer is ‘handover’ to adult practice and may involve change to a different hospital, different town or city, and different health care teams.
  • The ideal outcome of transition is that the young person is able to be assertive and communicate concerns to health care teams, take personal responsibility for their care and are more likely to be independent young adults in the community. 

We provide slide deck pdf downloads of talks on adolescence and transitional care.

Site Statistics

To date (end of November 2021) PMM has >968,551 hits and >402,983 users from 221 countries!

Why register?

Some parts of pmm which involve pictures or videos of children, can only be viewed by registered users. Registering also allows you to bookmark favourite pages and track your viewing.

find out more

Short online courses

from Newcastle University, UK

e-resources from PMM

pmm for you

Please help us ensure pmm is as useful to you as possible by completing this short survey

complete survey