Understand | diagnose | change

Whether you are looking to learn more about paediatric musculoskeletal problems, or are involved in the care of children, then PMM and PMM-Nursing will help you change your clinical practice for the better. PMM is free and open to all !

Key References & Guidelines

NICE guidance on the use of Abatacept, Adalimumab, Etanercept and Tocilizumab for treating Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (NICE 2015)

NICE guidance on tocilizumab for the treatment of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (2011)

NICE Guidelines: Child abuse and neglect (NICE 2017)

NICE guidance on feverish illness in children: Fever in under 5s: assessment and initial management (2021)

NICE guidance on suspected cancer: part 1 – children and young adults (June 2015)

Suspected cancer (part 1 – children and young adults) - visual overview of updated NICE guidance (June 2015)

NICE guidance on Sepsis: recognition, diagnosis and early management (2017)

British National Formulary for Children (2022)

pGALS – paediatric Gait Arms Legs and Spine: a simple examination of the musculoskeletal system (Ped Rheum Online 2013)

Review for the generalist: evaluation of anterior knee pain (Ped Rheum Online 2007)

Review for the generalist: evaluation of pediatric foot and ankle pain (Ped Rheum Online 2008)

Review for the generalist: evaluation of pediatric hip pain (Ped Rheum Online 2009)

Review for the generalist: evaluation of low back pain in children and adolescents (Ped Rheum Online 2010)

Review for the generalist: The antinuclear antibody test in children - When to use it and what to do (Ped Rheum Online 2010)

Versus Arthritis - More information on clinical assessment

Versus Arthritis - What is arthritis?

Versus Arthritis - Young people

Versus Arthritis - More information on clinical assessment (1)

Versus Arthritis - Musculoskeletal clinical assessment in children & young people

Versus Arthritis E Book - Musculoskeletal clinical assessment in children & young people

Versus Arthritis - Young people - Living with Arthritis - travelling

NHS - Growing Pains

Suggested approach to atraumatic limping child

Growing pains in children (Ped Rheum Online 2007)

The differential diagnosis of children with joint hypermobility: a review of the literature (Ped Rheum Online 2009)

Growing pains - advice to parents and carers

Autoinflammatory bone disorders with special focus on chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (Ped Rheum Online 2013)

Treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a revolution in care (Ped Rheum Online 2014)

Sedation methods for intra-articular corticosteroid injections in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: a review? (Ped Rheum Online 2015)

When does a knee "need" a "joint" assessment? (Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 2007)

Fifteen-minute consultation: rheumatic fever (Arch Dis Child Ed Pract 2015)

Transitional Care – You're Welcome Criteria (DOH 2011)

Comparison chart of systemic autoinflammatory diseases (SAID) involving periodic fevers (The NOMID Alliance 2013)

Normal lower limb variants in children (BMJ 2015)

About Kids Health

Arthur's Place

Juvenile Arthritis: Kids Get it Too – What Educators Need to Know About Juvenile Arthritis

Improving communication with young people and families

Young people's experience of arthritis

Transition tools - "ReadySteadyGo"

MPS awareness: Make the connection

Child muscle weakness

Bone strength in children: understanding basic bone biomechanics (Arch. Dis. Child. Ed. Pract 2015)

The child with joint pain in primary care (Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology 2014)

Vitamin D deficiency and rickets: consensus at last

The lived experience of juvenile idiopathic arthritis in young people receiving etanercept (Ped Rheum Online 2016)

NHS England November 2015 Interim Clinical Commissioning Policy Statement: Adalimumab for children with severe refractory uveitis

NHS England October 2015 Clinical Commissioning Policy Statement: Biologic Therapies for the treatment of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

Royal College Nursing Methotrexate Guidelines

Limping Child

RCH Melbourne Guidelines – Bone and Joint Infection

Acutely Swollen Joint



Acute Rheumatic Fever

Revised Jones criteria for Acute Rheumatic Fever 2015 - Ten points to remember

Revision of the Jones Criteria for the Diagnosis of Acute Rheumatic Fever in the Era of Doppler Echocardiography

Arthritis in association with human immunodeficiency virus infection in Black African Children: causal or coincidental? (Rheumatology 2005)

pGALS steps handout

Septic Arthritis and Acute Rheumatic Fever in Children: the diagnostic value of serological inflammatory markers (Mistry RM et al)

Doria AS, Taylor GA: Bony involvement in paracoccidioidomycosis. Pediatric Radiology 1997, 27(1):67-69.

Chronic arthritis in children and young people

Chikungunya Infection: A Re-emerging Epidemic

Ultrasound in JIA: Silvia Magni-Manzoni

Differentiating between septic arthritis and transient synovitis of the hip in children: an evidence-based clinical prediction algorithm (Kocher et al 1999)

pGALS steps with images

Periodic fever syndromes: beyond the single gene paradigm (Ped Rheum 2019)

MiracleFeet: A model of care for children with clubfoot

Establishing a correct diagnosis of Ehlers Danlos Syndrome hypermobility type (hEDS) in children and adolescents

Guidance for management of symptomatic hypermobility in children and young people – A guide for professionals managing children and young people with this condition (BSR 2019)

Evidence-based rationale for physical therapy treatment of joint hypermobility syndrome/hypermobile Ehlers Danlos syndrome (Am J Med Genet 2017).

Physical activity guidelines: UK Chief Medical Officers' report (2019)

Telemedicine in pediatric rheumatology (Ped Rheum Online 2020)

Detecting joint abnormalities in children with mucopolysaccharidoses using pGALS (Ped Rheum Online 2014)

Collaborative development of PMM (Ped Rheum 2016)

Mixed methods evaluation of PMM (Ped Rheum 2021)

Immunosuppression, infection and immunisation in rheumatology (Starship Child Health 2019)

Limp - assessment of paediatric limp in the Emergency Department (Starship Child Health 2020)

Pain - Procedural pain management (Starship Child Health 2020)

Raising awareness PAFLAR posters

A resource illustrating many skin rashes in MSK conditions (Skin Deep 2022)

Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology (CEBD) Skin of colour resource (The University of Nottingham 2020)

Association between Takayasu arteritis and latent or active Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: a systematic review (Clin Rheumatol. 2020)

Takayasu arteritis—advances in diagnosis and management (Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2010)

Pediatric rheumatic disease in lower to middle-income countries: impact of global disparities, ancestral diversity, and the path forward (Rheumatic Disease Clinics. 2022)

Clinical outcome measures in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (Paed Rheum. 2016)

Derivation of the sledai. A disease activity index for lupus patients (Arthritis & Rheumatology 1992)

What do medical students need to know about musculoskeletal medicine? (BMC Med. Educ. 2015)