Understand | diagnose | change

Whether you are looking to learn more about paediatric musculoskeletal problems, or are involved in the care of children, then PMM and PMM-Nursing will help you change your clinical practice for the better. PMM is free and open to all !


The approach to investigations must always focus on making an accurate diagnosis, planning management and / or monitoring of disease.

It is important to plan investigations to gain the most information, minimise radiation exposure and need for sedation.

  • Radiographs or Computerised Tomography (CT) or Radionuclide Bone Scans result in radiation exposure.
  • Ultrasound scanning is increasingly used, with the benefits of no radiation exposure or sedation being required. However, it is operator-dependent. 
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging may require sedation, but also has the benefit of no radiation. (There can however be some risk in the use of gadolinium contrast if that is required).
  • Densitometry is used to assess bone density. 
  • Echocardiography to assess for evidence of rheumatic heart disease, valvular lesions, aneurysms, or myopathy.