Lower Limb Normal Variants
There is a wide variation in lower limb development, and minor (normal) variants, such as flat feet or knock-knees, are a common cause of parental concern. Sometimes they can be confused with indicators of underlying pathology.
Here we describe the common normal variants, indications for concern and when to refer for specialist opinion (usually to paediatric orthopaedics).
We include descriptions for flat feet, toe walking, Genu Valgum (knock-knees), Genu Varum (bow-legs), Out-toeing and In-toeing, Curly Toes, Clubfoot and delayed walking
The figure below shows the normal development of leg alignment in children at different ages